An abscess is a pocket of pus. You can get an abscess almost anywhere in your body. When an area of your body becomes infected, your body’s immune system tries to fight the infection. White blood cells go to the infected area, collect within the damaged tissue, and cause inflammation. During this process, pus forms. Pus is a mixture of living and dead white blood cells, germs, and dead tissue.

Bacteria, viruses, parasites and swallowed objects can all lead to abscesses. Skin abscesses are easy to detect. They are red, raised and painful. Abscesses inside your body may not be obvious and can damage organs, including the brain, lungs and others. Treatments include drainage and antibiotics.


Balanitis is swelling of the foreskin and head of the penis. Balanitis is most often caused by poor hygiene in uncircumcised men. Other possible causes include:

  • Diseases, such as reactive arthritis and lichen sclerosus atrophicus
  • Infection
  • Harsh soaps
  • Not rinsing soap off properly while bathing
  • Uncontrolled diabetes


The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder. It makes fluid that is part of semen. An enlarged prostate is when your prostate gland becomes larger than normal. It’s also called benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH for short. Benign means not cancer. And hyperplasia means too much cell growth. BPH isn’t cancer and it doesn’t increase your risk of getting prostate cancer.


A method of learning to voluntarily control certain body functions such as heartbeat, blood pressure, and muscle tension with the help of a special machine. This method can help control pain.


A type of radiation therapy in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor.


Deposits of calcium in the tissues.


Calcium oxalate is the calcium salt of oxalic acid, which in excess in the urine may lead to formation of oxalate calculi (kidney stones). It contains an oxalate(2-).


A test to find out what a kidney stone is made of. This information helps your health care provider develop a plan to help you reduce your risk of forming more stones in the future.


A flexible tube used to deliver fluids into or withdraw fluids from the body.


Surgery to remove part or all of the foreskin (loose skin that covers the head of the penis).


A compound that is excreted from the body in urine.


Inflammation of the lining of the bladder.


A cystocele is a condition in which supportive tissues around the bladder and vaginal wall weaken and stretch, allowing the bladder and vaginal wall to fall into the vaginal canal.

Usually, the muscles and connective tissues that support the vaginal wall hold the bladder in place. With a cystocele, the muscles and tissues supporting the vagina weaken and stretch, allowing the bladder to move out of place.


A procedure that uses a cystoscope to look inside the urethra and bladder. A cystoscope is a long, thin optical instrument with an eyepiece at one end, a rigid or flexible tube in the middle, and a tiny lens and light at the other end of the tube. A urologist fills the bladder with fluid and looks at detailed images of the urethra and bladder linings on a computer monitor.


A voiding cystourethrogram is an x-ray study of the bladder and urethra. It is done while the bladder is emptying.


Cryotherapy uses very cold temperatures to freeze and kill prostate cancer cells. The goal of cryosurgery is to destroy the entire prostate gland and possibly surrounding tissue.


To evaluate the long-term success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy as a treatment for anterior urethral strictures. Although DVIU may be a management option for anterior urethral stricture disease, it seems that long-term results are disappointing.


Intermittent (non-continuous) wetting during sleep (including nap)


A symptom of pain and/or burning, stinging, or itching of the urethra or urethral meatus with urination. It is a very common urinary symptom experienced by most people at least once over their lifetimes. Causes of dysuria can be divided broadly into two categories, infectious and non-infectious. Treatment varies depending on the etiology. This activity describes the evaluation and treatment of dysuria and explains the role of the healthcare team in improving care for patients with this condition.


The release of semen through the penis during orgasm.


A common childhood disorder seen in outpatient settings. Enuresis can be promptly treated if cases are identified early. In this activity, the diagnosis, behavioral treatments, and pharmacologic treatments for enuresis will be reviewed. This activity will highlight the role of the interprofessional team in the management of enuresis.


A narrow, tightly-coiled tube that is attached to each of the testicles (the male sex glands that produce sperm). Sperm cells (male reproductive cells) move from the testicles into the epididymis, where they finish maturing and are stored.


Swelling (inflammation) of the tube that connects the testicle with the vas deferens. The tube is called the epididymis. Epididymitis is most common in young men ages 19 to 35. It is most often caused by the spread of a bacterial infection. Infection often begins in the urethra, the prostate, or the bladder. Gonorrhea and chlamydia infections are most often the cause of the problem in young heterosexual men. In children and older men, it is more commonly caused by E coli and similar bacteria. This is also true in men who have sex with men.


a disease in which tissue that is similar to the lining of the uterus grows in other places in your body. These patches of tissue are called “implants,” “nodules,” or “lesions.” They are most often found:

  • On or under the ovaries
  • On the fallopian tubes, which carry egg cells from the ovaries to the uterus
  • Behind the uterus
  • On the tissues that hold the uterus in place
  • On the bowels or bladder

In rare cases, the tissue may grow on your lungs or in other parts of your body.


A procedure that uses heat from an electric current to destroy abnormal tissue, such as a tumor or other lesion. It may also be used to control bleeding during surgery or after an injury. The electric current passes through an electrode that is placed on or near the tissue. The tip of the electrode is heated by the electric current to burn or destroy the tissue. Fulguration is a type of electrosurgery. Also called electrocautery, electrocoagulation, and electrofulguration.


Blood in the semen is called hematospermia. It may be in amounts too small to be seen except with a microscope, or it may be visible in the ejaculation fluid. Most of the time, the cause for blood in the semen is not known. It can be caused by swelling or infection of the prostate or seminal vesicles. The problem may occur after a prostate biopsy.

Blood in the semen may also be caused by:

  • Blockage due to enlarged prostate (prostate problems)
  • Infection of the prostate
  • Irritation in the urethra (urethritis)
  • Injury to the urethra


When blood gets into urine (pee), it’s called hematuria (hee-ma-TUR-ee-uh). It’s pretty common and usually not serious. There are two types of hematuria:

Microscopic hematuria is when blood in the urine can be seen only with a microscope. Often, this goes away without causing any problems. In fact, people might never know they have it unless they get a urine test.
Gross hematuria is when you can see the blood in the pee even without a microscope. This is because there is enough blood in the pee to turn it red or tea-colored.


A hernia happens when part of an internal organ or tissue bulges through a weak area of muscle. Most hernias are in the abdomen.

There are several types of hernias, including:

  • Inguinal, in the groin. This is the the most common type.
  • Umbilical, around the belly button
  • Incisional, through a scar
  • Hiatal, a small opening in the diaphragm that allows the upper part of the stomach to move up into the chest.
  • Congenital diaphragmatic, a birth defect that needs surgery

Hernias are common. They can affect men, women, and children. A combination of muscle weakness and straining, such as with heavy lifting, might contribute. Some people are born with weak abdominal muscles and may be more likely to get a hernia. Treatment is usually surgery to repair the opening in the muscle wall. Untreated hernias can cause pain and health problems.


Swelling of one kidney due to a backup of urine


A fluid-filled sac in the scrotum. During a baby’s development in the womb, the testicles descend from the abdomen through a tube into the scrotum. Hydroceles occur when this tube does not close. Fluid drains from the abdomen through the open tube and gets trapped in the scrotum. This causes the scrotum to swell.


A birth (congenital) defect in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis. The urethra is the tube that drains urine from the bladder. In males, the opening of the urethra is normally at the end of the penis.


Inability to control the flow of urine from the bladder (urinary incontinence) or the escape of stool from the rectum (fecal incontinence).


A chronic bladder condition resulting in recurring discomfort or pain in the bladder or surrounding pelvic region. People with IC usually have inflamed or irritated bladder walls which can cause scarring and stiffening of the bladder.


An intravenous pyelogram (IVP) uses x-rays to take pictures of the organs of your urinary tract. These are the organs that make urine (pee) and remove it from your body. They include your:

  • Kidneys, two organs located below the rib cage, one on each side of your spine. They filter your blood to remove waste and extra water in urine (pee).
  • Bladder, a hollow organ in your pelvis (the area below your belly). It stores urine.
  • Ureters, thin tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder.

IVP uses contrast dye to make these organs show up well on x-ray images. In males, x-rays from an IVP can also show the prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder and makes the fluid part of semen.


The suppression or retention of urine


A solid piece of material that forms in the kidney from substances in the urine. It may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pearl. Most kidney stones pass out of the body without help from a doctor. But sometimes a stone will not go away. It may get stuck in the urinary tract, block the flow of urine and cause great pain.


An abdominal x-ray is an imaging test to look at organs and structures in the abdomen. Organs include the spleen, stomach, and intestines.

When the test is done to look at the bladder and kidney structures, it is called a KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder) x-ray.


A procedure that uses shock waves to break up stones in the kidney and parts of the ureter (tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder). After the procedure, the tiny pieces of stones pass out of your body in your urine.


A narrowing of the opening of the urethra, the tube through which urine leaves the body. Meatal stenosis can affect both males and females. It is more common in males.


Urethral meatotomy as treatment for meatal stenosis is a common pediatric urology procedure.


A narrowing of the opening of the urethra, the tube through which urine leaves the body.


A solid piece of material that forms in the kidney from substances in the urine. It may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pearl. Most kidney stones pass out of the body without help from a doctor. But sometimes a stone will not go away. It may get stuck in the urinary tract, block the flow of urine and cause great pain.


Urinating more at night Normally, the amount of urine your body produces decreases at night. This allows most people to sleep 6 to 8 hours without having to urinate.


A common condition that can cause substantial psychological distress in children with the condition. Nocturnal enuresis is defined as nighttime bedwetting in children five years of age or older. The prevalence of bedwetting (≥2 nights per week) in one large British study was 8% at 9.5 years. There is a strong genetic component to bedwetting; in one large study, the odds of a child being a “severe” bedwetter were 3.6 times higher when there was maternal nocturnal enuresis. Gender also plays a role in bedwetting. In a large American study of children between 8 and 11 years of age, the prevalence of bedwetting was 6.21% among boys and 2.51% among girls. Boys have also been found to have more severe bedwetting than girls.


Blockage of a passageway.


Surgery to remove one or both testicles.


Testes (testicles) are the male organs that generate sperm and hormones for reproduction and sexual development. Undescended testes occur when either one or both of the testes have not moved down into the scrotum. The condition affects approximately four per cent of boys at birth.

In most cases, the undescended testes will move into the scrotum by six months of age and no treatment will be needed. However, surgery (called an orchidopexy) will be required if this doesn’t occur by the time your child is six months.


Swelling (inflammation) of one or both of the testicles. Orchitis may be caused by an infection. Many types of bacteria and viruses can cause this condition.

The most common virus that causes orchitis is mumps. It most often occurs in boys after puberty. Orchitis most often develops 4 to 6 days after the mumps begins.

Orchitis may also occur along with infections of the prostate or epididymis.

Orchitis may be caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia. The rate of sexually transmitted orchitis or epididymitis is higher in men ages 19 to 35.


Occurs when the foreskin of an uncircumcised male cannot be pulled back over the head of the penis.


A conservative alternative to surgical repair for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). They present a good option for patients who have not completed childbearing, do not desire surgery, or are poor surgical candidates. Long-term pessary use is a safe and effective option for patients with POP and stress urinary incontinence. Although serious side effects are infrequent, insertion and removal of most pessary types still pose a challenge for many patients. Pessary design should continue to improve, making its use a more attractive option.


A disorder in which scar NIH external link tissue, called plaque, forms under the skin of the penis—the male organ used for urination and sex.

The plaque builds up inside the penis, in the thick elastic membrane called the tunica albuginea. The tunica albuginea helps keep the penis stiff during an erection. The plaque can develop anywhere along the penis.

As it develops, the plaque pulls on the surrounding tissues and causes the penis to curve or bend, usually during an erection. Curves in the penis can make erections painful and may make sexual intercourse painful, difficult, or impossible.


A term used to describe difficulty retracting the penile prepuce. There are both physiologic and pathologic forms of phimosis, which can complicate the use of the term. The physiologic form is common in children between 2 and 4 years of age, is a self-limiting, and resolves once the foreskin becomes more retractile. The pathologic form is usually due to balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO), a cicatrizing skin condition histologically identical to lichen sclerosis. BXO has an insidious onset and may be associated with irritation, local infection, dysuria, and bleeding, which can precede atrophy and meatal stenosis.


An excessive volume of urination for an adult is more than 2.5 liters (about 67 fluid ounces or about 2.6 quarts) of urine per day. However, this can vary depending on how much water you drink and what your total body water is. This problem is different from needing to urinate often.

Polyuria is a fairly common symptom. People often notice the problem when they have to get up during the night to use the toilet (nocturia).


A disorder in which the penis maintains a prolonged erection in the absence of appropriate stimulation. Three broad categories exist for this disease: ischemic, nonischemic, and recurrent ischemic.


A gynecological condition in which the pelvic organs herniate into the vagina due to ligament or muscular weakness.


A gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder. It makes fluid that is part of semen.


An operation where doctors remove the prostate. Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate as well as the surrounding tissue.


Inflammation of the prostate gland. This problem can be caused by an infection with bacteria. However, this is not a common cause.

Acute prostatitis starts quickly. Long-term (chronic) prostatitis lasts for 3 months or more.


The amount of urine retained in the bladder after a voluntary void and functions as a diagnostic tool.


A kidney infection. Kidney infection is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that commonly begins in your bladder and moves upstream to one or both of your kidneys. In rare cases, kidney infections can lead to serious health problems, but quick treatment prevents most complications.


Fecal incontinence


A type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney.


A condition in which the kidneys stop working and are not able to remove waste and extra water from the blood or keep body chemicals in balance. Acute or severe renal failure happens suddenly (for example, after an injury) and may be treated and cured. Chronic renal failure develops over many years, may be caused by conditions like high blood pressure or diabetes, and cannot be cured. Chronic renal failure may lead to total and long-lasting renal failure, called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A person in ESRD needs dialysis (the process of cleaning the blood by passing it through a membrane or filter) or a kidney transplant. Also called kidney failure.


One of the most common causes of secondary hypertension. It is mostly due to the narrowing of blood vessels in the kidney.


A diagnostic test for male patients with trauma (injury) to the urethra.


In males, the external sac that contains the testicles.


The fluid that is released through the penis during orgasm.


A gland that helps produce semen.


A ring-shaped muscle that relaxes or tightens to open or close a passage or opening in the body.


A device placed in a body structure (such as a blood vessel or the gastrointestinal tract) to keep the structure open.


A process of complete elimination or destruction of all forms of microbial life (i.e., both vegetative and spore forms), which is carried out by various physical and chemical methods. Technically, there is reduction ≥106 log colony forming units (CFU) of the most resistant spores achieved at the half-time of a regular cycle.


Struvite and triple phosphate renal calculi are formed as a result of urinary tract infection by urease-forming organisms. They grow rapidly and occupy the entire collecting system causing obstruction, chronic pyelonephritis, and renal failure. To avoid the high morbidity and mortality associated with this condition, it must be promptly diagnosed and treated.


An abnormal narrowing of the esophageal lumen. It often presents with difficulty swallowing and has many potential etiologies. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is often the first diagnostic modality offered and allows for concurrent therapeutic intervention.


Drains urine from your bladder. It is inserted into your bladder through a small hole in your belly. You may need a catheter because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary retention (not being able to urinate), surgery that made a catheter necessary, or another health problem.


One of two egg-shaped glands inside the scrotum that produce sperm and male hormones. Also called testicle.


Caused by twisting of the blood supply and spermatic cord. The tunica vaginalis is usually solidly adhered to the posterolateral aspect of the testicle and within it, the spermatic cord is not mobile. If the attachment of the tunica vaginalis is high, then this allows for the spermatic cord to twist inside, leading to intravaginal torsion. This defect is referred to as the bell clapper deformity and is bilateral in at least 2/5th of cases.


A hormone made mainly in the testes (part of the male reproductive system). It is needed to develop and maintain male sex characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle growth. Testosterone may also be made in the laboratory and is used to treat certain medical conditions.


A procedure used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A small microwave antenna on the instrument heats nearby prostate tissue and destroys it. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow.


Surgery to remove tissue from the prostate using an instrument inserted through the urethra.


The goals of transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) are to identify and eradicate visualized bladder tumour if technically safe and feasible and to obtain a specimen of satisfactory quality to enable accurate histological diagnosis. In the setting of high grade bladder tumour this generally entails the inclusion of detrusor muscle and assessment for the presence of associated carcinoma in situ (CIS), lymphovascular involvement or any variant form of bladder cancer. This will assist in determining risk stratification and prognostication of the bladder cancer and guides further treatment planning. Conversely, if suboptimal TURBT is performed there will be detrimental consequences on patient outcomes in regards to undergrading or understaging, increased recurrence or progression, and subsequently need for further treatments including more invasive interventions.


A blockage at the point where part of the kidney attaches to one of the tubes to the bladder (ureters). This blocks the flow of urine out of the kidney.


Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The urine travels from the kidneys to the bladder in two thin tubes called ureters.


Swelling at the bottom of one of the ureters. Ureters are the tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder. The swollen area can block urine flow.


The tube through which urine leaves the body. It empties urine from the bladder.


Inflammation (swelling and irritation) of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the body.


A chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are normally produced in the body and are also found in some foods and drinks. Foods with high content of purines include liver, anchovies, mackerel, dried beans and peas, and beer.


A thin-walled tube that conveys urine from the floor of the urinary bladder to the outside.


Common infections that happen when bacteria, often from the skin or rectum, enter the urethra, and infect the urinary tract.


Collecting a urine sample in a special container at a doctor’s office or at a lab. A health care professional will look at the sample under a microscope for bacteria and white blood cells, which the body produces to fight infection. Bacteria also can be found in the urine of healthy people, so a kidney infection is diagnosed based both on your symptoms and a lab test.


A common condition, and it accounts for a large number of hospital visits. It is frequently preventable by modification of risk factors and has numerous treatment options.


The measurement of the relevant physiological parameters of the LUT to assess its function and dysfunction. Clinicians can perform urodynamics noninvasively and invasively. The standard urodynamic test includes both forms of assessment. The test involves noninvasive evaluation of bladder emptying, and invasive assessments of bladder storage function and bladder emptying function.


Abnormal dilation and enlargement of the scrotal venous pampiniform plexus which drains blood from each testicle.


A coiled tube that carries the sperm out of the testes.


An operation to cut or tie off the two tubes that carry sperm out of the testicles.


An x-ray study of the bladder and urethra. It is done while the bladder is emptying.


A condition in which urine flows backward from the bladder to one or both ureters and sometimes to the kidneys. VUR is most common in infants and young children. Most children don’t have long-term problems from VUR.

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